Propolis is a resinous material of waxy consistency collected by bees from the buds and barks of trees. It varies in colour and physical properties and is used in the beehive for various purposes.
It is very important for the bee colony but also for humans as well.
Did you know that propolis has very good anti-inflammatory properties (an Oxford University study showed that propolis is twice as good as Aspirin in handling inflammation).
Propolis has as main sources (origin):
- plant secretions, exudates
- resins from tree bark (especially pine trees – Pinus spp.)
- birch buds (Betula species) and poplar buds (Populus species) to name a few. The poplar buds are particularly attractive to bees, in the temperate climate areas.
according to the geographical origin:
- North American
- South American
- Central American propolis etc., etc.
according to the altitude:
- mountain propolis
- plain propolis
- desert propolis
according to its characteristics (colour):
- brown-greenish propolis (found mainly in temperate areas);
- red propolis (found mainly in tropical areas like in Cuba and Brazil)
One can say also that as there are many plant sources so there are many propolis types.
There are two major ways to administer propolis: internally and externally.
“Internal” administration means that the propolis penetrates deeply or very deeply into the body, as far as the bones, kidneys, heart and brain.
“Internal” means not only to administer propolis through the mouth or through the nose (as in inhalations), but also through the anus or vulva (as is the case with the vaginal and rectal suppositories), or by injections.
“External” administration means that the propolis is applied to the skin and/or on its superficial “holes”: the ears and the eyes (conjunctival sack).
A) INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION
1) Oral administration (to be swallowed):
- as liquids
- water propolis extract
- syrups (as in cough syrups)
- b) as semi-liquids
- honey-propolis mixtures
- propilen-glycol extract
- c) as solids
- raw propolis (chewed than swallowed)
- powder from raw propolis
- butter propolis extract
- propolis tablets
- micro-encapsulated propolis extract
2) Mouth preparations
- tooth paste
- water extract (local use)
- tincture (local use)
- raw propolis + pollen/oleaginous seeds/crystallized honey/beeswax
3) For respiratory tract diseases
4) Intra-vaginal administration
- ovules (vaginal suppositories)
5) Intra-rectal administration
- intra-articular injections of aqueous propolis extract
B) EXTERNAL ADMINISTRATION
1) for eyes:
- eyes drops (eyes solution) (water extract etc.)
- molecular mycelia for eye treatments
- ocular drug films
2) for skin:
- as sunscreen agent
- lips stick
- powder from raw propolis (combined with honey or olive oil for example)
3) for scalp’s hair and skin
4) for tissues
- electro- and phonophoresis